# filters.range¶

The **Range Filter** applies rudimentary filtering to the input point cloud
based on a set of criteria on the given dimensions.

Streamable Stage

This stage supports streaming operations

## Example¶

This example passes through all points whose `Z`

value is in the
range [0,100]
and whose `Classification`

equals 2 (corresponding to ground in LAS).

```
[
"input.las",
{
"type":"filters.range",
"limits":"Z[0:100],Classification[2:2]"
},
{
"type":"writers.las",
"filename":"filtered.las"
}
]
```

The equivalent pipeline invoked via the PDAL `translate`

command would be

```
$ pdal translate -i input.las -o filtered.las -f range --filters.range.limits="Z[0:100],Classification[2:2]"
```

## Options¶

- limits
A comma-separated list of Ranges. If more than one range is specified for a dimension, the criteria are treated as being logically ORed together. Ranges for different dimensions are treated as being logically ANDed.

Example:

Classification[1:2], Red[1:50], Blue[25:75], Red[75:255], Classification[6:7]

This specification will select points that have the classification of 1, 2, 6 or 7 and have a blue value or 25-75 and have a red value of 1-50 or 75-255. In this case, all values are inclusive.

- where
An expression that limits points passed to a filter. Points that don’t pass the expression skip the stage but are available to subsequent stages in a pipeline. [Default: no filtering]

- where_merge
A strategy for merging points skipped by a ‘where’ option when running in standard mode. If

`true`

, the skipped points are added to the first point view returned by the skipped filter. If`false`

, skipped points are placed in their own point view. If`auto`

, skipped points are merged into the returned point view provided that only one point view is returned and it has the same point count as it did when the filter was run. [Default:`auto`

]

## Ranges¶

A range specification is a dimension name, followed by an optional negation character (‘!’), and a starting and ending value separated by a colon, surrounded by parentheses or square brackets. Either the starting or ending values can be omitted. Parentheses indicate an open endpoint that doesn’t include the adjacent value. Square brackets indicate a closed endpoint that includes the adjacent value.

### Example 1:¶

```
Z[10:]
```

Selects all points with a Z value greater than or equal to 10.

### Example 2:¶

```
Classification[2:2]
```

Selects all points with a classification of 2.

### Example 3:¶

```
Red!(20:40]
```

Selects all points with red values less than or equal to 20 and those with values greater than 40

### Example 4:¶

```
Blue[:255)
```

Selects all points with a blue value less than 255.

### Example 5:¶

```
Intensity![25:25]
```

Selects all points with an intensity not equal to 25.